Surgical oncology focuses on the surgical management of cancer. There are currently 14 surgical oncology fellowship training programs in the United States approved by the Society of Surgical Oncology. While many general surgeons are actively involved in treating patients with malignant neoplasms, the designation of “surgical oncologist” is reserved for those surgeons who have completed one of the approved fellowship programs. However, this is a matter of semantics, as many surgeons who are thoroughly involved in treating cancer patients may consider themselves to be surgical oncologists. Most often, “surgical oncologist” refers to a general surgical oncologist, but thoracic surgical oncologists, gynecologic oncologists, etc. can all be considered surgeons who specialize in treating cancer patients. The importance of training surgeons who sub-specialize in cancer surgery lies in evidence, supported by a number of clinical trials, that outcomes in surgical cancer care are positively associated to surgeon volume. The more cancer cases a surgeon treats, the more proficient he becomes, and his or her patients experience improved survival rates as a result.