Clone, Cloning, Cloning Vector, Clonote
A clone is a replica, for example, of a group of bacteria or a macromolecule such as DNA. Clone also refers to an individual developed from a single somatic (non-germ) cell from a parent, representing an exact replica of that parent. A clone is a group of cells derived from a single ancestral cell.
Cloning refers to the technique of producing a genetically identical copy of an organism by replacing the nucleus of an unfertilized ovum with the nucleus of a body cell from the organism. The first adult mammal cloned was Dolly the Sheep in 1997.
A cloning vector is a DNA molecule originating from a virus, a plasmid or the cell of a higher organism into which another DNA fragment can be integrated without loss of the vector’s (carrier’s) capacity for self-replication. Cloning vectors are used to introduce foreign DNA into host cells, where that DNA can be reproduced (cloned) in large quantities.
A clonote is the first cell produced by the combination of a nucleus and an enucleated ovum that launches the process of somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). As opposed to the zygote, the first cell resulting from fertilization. The term “clonote” was coined to connote the fundamental difference between in vitro fertilization (IVF) and SCNT. IVF (and the natural reproductive process) can lead to the production of a zygote and, in time, a human being whereas SCNT, so far, cannot. The term was created by merging clon(e) and (zyg)ote.