Cancer of the Bladder
The wall of the bladder is lined with cells called transitional cells and squamous cells. More than 90 percent of bladder cancers begin in the transitional cells and this is termed transitional cell carcinoma. About 8 percent of bladder cancer patients have squamous cell carcinomas. Cancer that is only in cells in the lining of the bladder is termed superficial bladder cancer or carcinoma in situ. This type of bladder cancer often comes back after treatment. If this happens, the disease most often recurs as another superficial cancer in the bladder. Bladder cancer that begins as a superficial tumor may grow through the lining and into the muscular wall of the bladder. This kind of invasive cancer may extend through the bladder wall and it can grow into a nearby organ such as the uterus or vagina or the prostate gland an it can invade the wall of the abdomen. When bladder cancer spreads outside the bladder, cancer cells are often found in nearby lymph nodes. If the cancer has reached these nodes, it may spread to other lymph nodes or other organs, such as the lungs, liver, or bones. If found early, while the cancer is still localized in the bladder (superficial bladder cancer or carcinoma in situ), the prognosis is quite good with treatment.